| ASPECTS REGARDING SEEDS MORFOLOGY
AND GERMINATION PECULIARITIES AT SOME TAXA FROM
SILENE L. GENERA
* “Anastasie Fatu” Botanic Garden, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Romania
Abstract: Genus Silene L. is represented in the Romanian flora by 37 taxa that have different uses or an endemic species status. Highlighting morphological features of the seeds using light microscope provides very useful information in clarifying some taxonomic issues, but also in setting up a useful database for germplasm preservation. Regarding the germination, of interest were germination percentage and germination speed, plantlets development, the occurrence of the first pair of leaves, etc. The monitoring this process shows that differences between taxa occur in the early stages of development.
Key words: Silene, seeds morphology, germination
| THE CONSERVATION OF SPECIES BELLEVALIA
SARMATICA (GEORGI) WORONOV BY THE VITROCULTURE METHOD
SEDCENCO MARIA*, CIORCHINA NINA*, CLAPA DOINA**, FIRA ALEXANDRU**
* The Botanical Garden (Institute) of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
** The Fruit Research Station Cluj, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Abstract: In vitro bulbification is a method by which bulb formation is stimulated and speeded up in the species that are propagated by bulbs and which need, in the conditions of a classicel culture, a longer period for the formation of flower-bearing bulbs. In this article, the results of research is presented, regarding the conservation, multiplication and maintenance of this vulnerable species included in the Red Book of the Republic of Moldova. This study was carried out in order to re-introduce this species into its native habitats. Optimal media were elaborated for the initiation, multiplication, rhyzogenesis and the maintenance of this species in in vitro conditions.
Key words: conservation, in vitro, multiplication, auxins, cytokinins
| THE BIOLOGY OF THE PROPAGATION
OF SPECIES SCHISANDRA CHINENSIS (TURCZ.) BAILL.
CIORCHINA NINA*, ONICA ELISAVETA*, ROSCA ION*, DUMITRAS ADELINA**, CLAPA DOINA***, FIRA ALEXANDRU***
* The Botanical Garden (Institute) ASM, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
** University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, România
*** Fruit Research Station Cluj, Cluj-Napoca, România
Abstract: The paper presents aspects regarding the possibilities for the propagation of species Schisandra chinensis (Turz.) Baill, as well as its reaction in the pedo-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova. Situated in the Lianarium of the Botanical Garden (Institute) ASM since 1975, Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. grows, develops and fructifies abundantly every year. It is propagated vegetatively and generatively with some difficulty. In the case of generative propagation, in order to obtain a high germination percentage, the seeds are stratified in three phases, at different temperatures and are sown in spring. Germination percentages of 80-90% were obtained. Schisandra chinensis is also propagated by greenwood cuttings, semi-hardwood or hardwood cuttings, by layering or by division. The best results were obtained by using semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings taken in summer, in June-July, from younger plants. The potential for in vitro propagation of this species was also tested. The explants consisting of apical meristems inoculated on MS medium + 0.5 mg/l BAP evolved the best.
Key words: propagation, cutting, climber, medicinal plant, Schisandraceae
SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE CULTIVATION OF SPECIES WITH DECORATIVE VALUE ACONITUM DEGENII Gáyer
MARDARI CONSTANTIN*, TANASE CATALIN**, DRAGHIA LUCIA***, BÎRSAN CIPRIAN*
* “Anastasie Fatu” Botanic Garden, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania
** University „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Faculty of Biology, Iasi, Romania
*** “Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University, Iasi, Romania
Abstract: Ex situ conservation is the most important way through a Botanic Garden contributes to biodiversity conservation. One of the multiple directions of ex situ conservation is the diversification of the collections with spontaneous cormophytes presenting decorative value. Aconitum degenii Gáyer is an herbaceous, perennial and toxic species with the areal in Alps and Carpathian Mountains, sporadically met at forest’s margins. This species has been studied in 2009-2011 period in order to observe its behavior in the environmental conditions characteristic to the Botanic Garden of Iasi. To accomplish this aim seeds, rhizomes and individuals have been collected from the wild and introduced in experimental fields. Comparisons between flowering periods, qualitative (color of the flowers) and quantitative (number of the flowers, leaves and ramifications, plants height, rhizomes length) decorative characters of both cultivated and spontaneous individuals have been realized. It was observed that Aconitum degenii Gáyer individuals are keeping (almost the same quantitative characteristics) and even improve (longer flowering period) their decorative characteristics without being deteriorated or diminished. From the morpho – anatomical perspective none significant differences have been observed.
Key words: decorative species, conventional cultivation
RESEARCH REGARDING THE INTRODUCTION OF A LEAST KNOWN VEGETABLE SPECIES IN CULTURE, IN TRANSYLVANIAN TABLELAND AREA; THE POSSIBILITY OF CULTIVATING CHINESE CABBAGE IN EARLY SPRING IN OPEN FIELD
LACZI ENIKO*, APAHIDEAN ALEXANDRU SILVIU*
* University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, Cluj-Napoca, România
Abstract: The research concerning the possibility of cultivating Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris var. pekinensis) took place in the spring of 2011, in the experimental field which belongs to the Vegetable Growing Department from the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Cluj-Napoca. A collection of varieties and hybrids belonging to this species was established, within which a variety (Granat) and four hybrids (Michihli, Kingdom 80, Nepa F1 and Vitimo F1) were used.
During the vegetation period measurements were made regarding the growing and the development of these plants in Transylvanian Tableland specific conditions. The processing of data recorded at harvest shows that the obtained yield varied between 41.00 and 63.15 t/ha, the Vitimo F1 hybrid reaching the highest yield.
The obtained yields are satisfying, considering that the culture was an ecological one, no chemical products such as fertilisers or substances for prevention and control of pests and diseases were used.
Key words: Chinese cabbage, organic culture, Chinese cabbage varieties
COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON TAXA OF MENTHA L. GENUS
ANDRO ANCA-RALUCA*, BOZ IRINA*, PADURARIU CLAUDIA*, ATOFANI DOINA*, COISIN MAGDA*, ZAMFIRACHE MARIA-MAGDALENA*
* Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Biology, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Iasi, Romania
Abstract: The Mentha L. genus has many aromatic and medicinal taxa with a large area in our country. These taxa prefer flooded, swampy areas and wetlands, but they can also grow in moderate dry areas. Biochemical characteristics were obtained for 7 taxa from Mentha L. genus, wild or cultivated plants. The studies concerning the assimilative pigments, the hydric content, and the dry matter were determined for each vegetation stage. We used the gravimetric method for the hydric content and dry matter and the spectrophotometric method for estimation of the assimilative pigments. The results of the experiments are not the same for each taxon because of different harvesting periods and the ecological conditions of each taxon area.
Key words: Mentha, assimilative pigments, dry matter, water
| OBSERVATIONS ON THE FOLIAR ASSIMILATING
PIGMENTS CONTENT FOR WILD AND GARDEN ROSES
ADUMITRESEI LIDIA*, ZAMFIRACHE MARIA MAGDALENA**, OLTEANU ZENOVIA**, BOZ IRINA**
* „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, „Anastasie Fatu” Botanical Garden, Dumbrava Rosie, no. 7-9, Romania
** „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of Biology, Carol I Bd., no. 20A, Romania
Abstract: The study of foliar assimilating pigments (chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid pigments) during the ontogenetic development for the wild and the cultivar species of roses indicate from interesting aspects on the ratio chlorophyll a and b, which is more than a unit in the case of species and in most cases, less than a unit for the cultivars. The ratio chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, reaches thousands in the case of species and units (tenths) for cultivars.
We mention here that the cultivars are the result of multiple and introgressive hybridizations conducted for hundreds of years [ADUMITRESEI & STANESCU, 2009; KRÜSMAN, 1986].
Key words: wild and cultivated roses, chlorophyll, carotenoids from the leaf
| INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN THE MYCORRHIZAL
SYSTEMS AND SOIL ORGANISMS
BALAES TIBERIUS*, TANASE CATALIN*
* „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of Biology, Carol I Bd., no. 20A, Romania
Abstract: The mycorrhizae are largely spread in natural ecosystems, and the proportion of plants that realise mycorrhizas is overwhelming, this relation involving advantages for both partners. The presence or absence of mycorrhizae, the rate and intensity of mycorrhiza formation are aspects with ecological importance, but also present importance in modern agriculture. The research results published on international literature which views the principal relations between mycorrhizae and soil microbiota, the way in which these relations affect the intensity of mycorrhizae formation and also the efficiency of mycorrhizae under the influence of soil organisms are synthesized and commented in this paper. The relations between mycorrhizae and different categories of bacteria, protozoa or microfungi, as well the influence of invertebrates through interactions of them with microorganisms are also being analyzed.
Key words: mycorrhizae, interrelations, rhizosphere
| NEW CHARACTERISTICS FOR MORPHOTAXONOMY
OF GIGASPORA SPECIES BELONGING TO ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL
SHARDA W. KHADE*
* Goa University, Department of Botany, Taleigao Plateau, GOA-403206, India
Abstract: New characteristics for morpho-taxonomy were devised to support the species concept in genus Gigaspora belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Three species viz. G. margarita, G. decipiens and unidentified Gigaspora sp. were studied for various characters viz. bulbous suspensor, sporophore, germ tube, presence of septum and presence or absence connecticle. The term “Connecticle” is newly introduced and is a region present between the base of bulbous suspensor and septum overlying the sporophore. The term “Germ pore” is also newly introduced. The present study reported that germ tube in Gigaspora is always attached to the spore through a pore which is now named as germ pore. In all, eight types of subtending hypha were recorded during the present study with variations in shape of bulbous suspensor and sporophore along with presence or absence connecticle. Presence of germ pore, septum and germ tube was common feature in Gigaspora species undertaken for the study. The location of septum was another new character devised for taxonomy in the present study. Thus the present study upholds the species concept in Gigaspora based on morpho-taxonomy.
Key words: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, bulbous suspensor, connecticle, germ pore, germ tube, G. margarita, G. decipiens, morpho-taxonomy, septum, sporophore, unidentified Gigaspora sp.
| COMPOSITION OF THE VOLATILE OIL
EXTRACTED FROM ABIES ALBA MILLER LEAVES PARASITIZED BY MELAMPSORELLA
CARYOPHYLLACEARUM (DC.) J. SCHRÖT.
MANOLIU ALEXANDRU*, IRIMIA ROMEO*, MIRCEA CORNELIA**, SPAC ADRIAN**
* “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Biology of Faculty, Bd. Carol I, 20A, Iasi, Romania
** "Gr. T. Popa” Medecine and Pharmacy University, Pharmacy Faculty, st. University, 16, Iasi, Romania
Abstract: Researches results highlights both qualitative and quantitative influences exercised by the parasitic species Melampsorella caryophyllacearum on the composition of the volatile oil extracted from Abies alba leaves, prelevated in 2010 from Oituz river basin (Bacau county). The isolation of volatile oils has been realized by hydrodistillation in Neo-Clavenger installation, followed by gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. The increase of the monoterpenes concentration in the parasitized sample could be explained by the degradative action of the enzymes produced by the pathogenic species Melampsorella caryophyllacearum or by the incapacity of syntheses from these monoterpenes of some compounds presenting a more complex structure in the parasitized plant case.
Key words: volatile oil, monoterpenes, sescviterpenes, Abies alba, Melampsorella caryophyllacearum
EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS FOR TRACE ELEMENTS ANALYSIS IN PERENNIAL PLANTS USING ICP-OES TECHNIQUE
SENILA MARIN*, SENILA LACRIMIOARA*, ROMAN CECILIA*
* INCDO-INOE Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, 67 Donath, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the validation of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method used for metals determination from several perennial plant samples. The suitability of two digestion procedures using wet digestion with mineral acids mixture on hot plate and microwave digestion was investigated to determine As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in plants samples. The LOD of the seven analysed elements in solid samples varied between 0.20µg g-1 for Mn and 0.55µg g-1 for Pb. The found values for metals determined by ICP-OES in a vegetable certified reference material digested using the two procedures were compared with the certified values and good agreements between these values were obtained. The proposed method indicated satisfactory recovery, detection limits and standard deviations for trace metal determination in perennial plants samples.
Key words: ICP-OES, plant analysis, method validation, multielemental analysis
| CONTRIBUTION TO THE MACROMYCETES
BIODIVERSITY FROM BOLINTIN DEAL FOREST – GIURGIU, ROMANIA
RADU MIHAI-IULIAN*, SESAN TATIANA-EUGENIA*
* Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 1-3 Portocalelor St., district 5, Bucharest – Romania
Abstract: The paper contains the results of macromycetes investigations within the Bolintin Deal Forest near the city of Bucharest. The research objective was to inventory the species for this area, establishing the present status of biodiversity of fungi. There were identified 59 species of macromycetes. All the identified species represent a new contribution due to the lack of mycological research in the given area. The study is part of a larger research regarding the diversity and distribution of macromycetes in Bucharest and its surroundings, Romania.
Key words: fungal distribution and diversity, macromycetes, taxonomy, Bolintin Deal Forest, Giurgiu, Romania
| GALIUM RUTHENICUM WILLD.
IN FLORA OF ROMANIA
* University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 59 Marasti Av., Bucharest, Romania
Abstract: A newly identified species in the vascular flora of Romania, namely Galium ruthenicum Willd. is published now. This taxa has been identified in Tulcea county, Dobrudja province. It is grown on sunny, rocky places.
It is also mentioned the differences against Galium verum L., a morphologically close taxa in flora of Romania.
Key words: Galium ruthenicum, features, ecology, distribution, Romania’s flora
| THE VARIABILITY OF CEPHALARIA
URALENSIS (MURRAY) ROEM. ET SCHULT.
* University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 59 Marasti Av., Bucharest, Romania
Abstract: The variability of Cephalaria uralensis (Murray) Roem. et Schult., incl. subsp. dobrogensis Ciocârlan, subsp. nova, and an identification key, are presented in this paper.
Key words: Cephalaria uralensis, variability, features, ecology, distribution, Romania’s flora
| PILOSELLA HILL GENUS IN
THE BESSARABIA`S FLORA
* Botanical Garden (Institute) of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Abstract: As a result of floristic and taxonomic investigations of the Pilosella genus within the flora of the Bessarabia have been established 11 species: P. officinarum F. Schultz et Sch. Bip, P. aurantiaca F. Schultz et Sch. Bip., P. praealta (Vill ex Gochn.) F. Schultz et Sch. Bip., P. piloselloides (Vill.) Sojak, P. glaucescens (Bess.) Sojak, P. echioides (Lumn.) F. Schultz et Sch. Bip., P. caespitosa (Dumort.) P. D. Sell et C. West, P. cymosa (L.) F. Schultz et Sch. Bip, P. lactucela (Wallr.) P. D. Sell et C. West, P. rojowskii (Rehm.) Schljak. & P. flagellare (Willd.) Arv.-Touv., the last three are new taxa recently detected for the flora in the study. After chorological analysis, has been concluded that 6 species are rare. Ecological and biomorfological characteristics of taxa have been established, the determination key of the Pilosella`s species has been drawn.
Key words: genus Pilosella Hill, Bessarabia´s flora, taxonomy, bioecology, chorology
| TAXONOMICAL POSITION AND DISTRIBUTION
OF BUSCHIA LATERIFLORA (DC.) OVCZ. (RANUNCULACEAE
JUSS.) SPECIES IN THE BESSARABIA
CANTEMIR VALENTINA*, NEGRU ANDREI*, STEPHYRTSA ANA*
* Botanical Garden of the Moldova Academy of Sciences, Padurii str., no. 18, 2002, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Abstract: Having the target of taxonomic concretization the Ranunculus L. and Buschia (DC.) Ovcz. genera from Bessarabia flora, the Herbarium specimens of Botanical Garden Academy of Sciences, and Moldova State University were investigated and analyzed. Research results attest the priority concept of Ranunculus L. genus and the presence of Buschia lateriflora (DC.) Ovcz. species in native flora. Revealing a new habitat for Buschia lateriflora species complete the species area within South-East Europe limits. Morphologic distinctive criteria of studied genus are given.
Key words: axonomical position, distribution, Buschia lateriflora (DC.) Ovcz., Bessarabia
| NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF
ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA
SÎRBU CULITA*, OPREA ADRIAN**, ELIÁŠ PAVOL jun.***, FERUS PETER****
* University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi, Faculty of Agriculture, 3, Mihail Sadoveanu Alley, Iasi, Romania
** “Anastasie Fatu” Botanical Garden, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 7-9 Dumbrava Rosie St., 700487, Iasi, Romania
*** Slovak Agricultural University, Faculty of Agrifood Resources, Nitra, Slovakia
**** Arboretum Mlynany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vieska nad Zitavou, Slovakia
Abstract: In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge). Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L.) or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas) C. A. Mey.), and some are reported from new localities (seven species). For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi (IASI).
Key words: alien plants, flora, new records, Romania
| ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DIPTEROCARPACEAE
OF NORTH ANDAMAN FOREST, INDIA
PRASAD P. RAMA CHANDRA*
* Lab for spatial Informatics, International Institute of Information Technology, Gachibowli, 500032, Hyderabad, India
Abstract: Dipterocarpaceae is one of the important timber families of Andaman Islands whose members were largely exploited for their timber in the past. The current study discusses in detail about the family Dipterocarpaceae of North Andaman forest with reference to its species composition, population structure and other ecological entities. Data was analyzed using various ecological and statistical methods. Dipterocarps were encountered in 97 plots, occupying 80% of the sampled area with 68 stems ha-1 and basal area of 8.2 m2 ha-1. Dipterocarpaceae ranked 3rd with reference to stem density (11%) and 1st with respect to basal area (18%). The family showed five species viz., Dipterocarpus alatus, D. costatus, D. gracilis, D. grandiflorus and Hopea odorata compounded from two genera – Dipterocarpus and Hopea. Keeping in view of the species demographic structure as well as regeneration status, conservative measures are suggested along with certain research questions which need immediate attention in the fragile insular ecosystems of Andaman Islands.
Key words: Andaman, dipterocarps, dispersion, endemic, regeneration, South East Asia
| EX SITU CONSERVATION OF
SAUSSUREA PORCII DEGEN IN Y. FEDKOVYCH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
* Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University Botanic Garden, Fedkovych 11, 58022, Chernivtsi, Ukraine
Abstract: The International Agenda for Botanic Gardens in Conservation emphasizes on conservation of rare species ex situ as the main task and its aim is the creation of a reserve stock for the possibility of active recovery in nature. We have introduced in the culture and first have been studied rhythm of phenological development and flowering, depending on weather conditions, seed production and added guidelines for breeding the endangered Eastern Carpathians endemic species – Saussurea porcii Degen, which is listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine and the European List of Globally Threatened Animals and Plants. We have created a field bank S. porcii – it is our contribution to the conservation of plant diversity.
Key words: Saussurea porcii Degen, ex situ conservation, Red Data Book of Ukraine, a field bank, the biology of developing
| POLYGONATUM VERTICILLATUM (LINN.)
ALL. AND POLYGONATUM CIRRHIFOLIUM (WALL.) ROYLE: TWO THREATENED
VITAL HEALERS FROM ASTHAVERGA NURTURED BY GARHWAL HIMALAYA, INDIA
BISHT POONAM*, PRASAD PRATTI*, NAUTIYAL BHAGWATI PRASAD**
* High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre (HAPPRC), HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal), 246 174, Uttarakhand, India
** Department of Horticulture, Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (HAMP), School of ES & NRM, Mizoram University, Aizawl, 796 009, Mizoram, India
Abstract: The biodiversity of Garhwal Himalaya supports a large number of medicinal plants used in various ailments as a drug. Polygonatum verticillatum and Polygonatum cirrhifolium, the healers from 'Asthaverga' of 'Ayurveda', are reported from Garhwal Himalaya, but due to overexploitation are encompassed in threatened category. The present study is a documentation of these plants to facilitate the conservation of these crude drugs in their natural habitat and to domesticate them. The study also provides information regarding the resident’s outlook, living in surrounding area of these species, towards these species.
Key words: conservation, medicinal, Polygonatum verticillatum, Polygonatum cirrhifolium
| ECOLOGICAL AND AESTHETIC ROLE OF
SPONTANEOUS FLORA IN URBAN SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPES DEVELOPMENT
POP (BOANCA) PAUNITA IULIANA*, DUMITRAS ADELINA*, SINGUREANU VALENTIN*, CLAPA DOINA**, MAZARE GEORGEL*
* University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, România
** Fruit Research Station Cluj, Cluj-Napoca, România
Abstract: The aim of this scientific paper is to promote sustainable methods with beneficial effects on the environment, with aesthetic effect on urban and rural landscapes. This paper highlights and promotes ecological and aesthetic role of spontaneous flora in sustainable landscape planning. This method in which spontaneous flora is an important environmental factor is minimal valued in terms of landscape, even less implemented in Romania. By covering current bibliographic references, by analysing contemporary urban landscape in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in the present study, are exposed principles, benefits, constraints and legitimate questions about sustainable landscapes by introducing spontaneous flora or, more simply, through its conservation, practical examples of successful integration in the contemporary landscape of ruderal landscapes. Conclusions from this study refer specifically to the role of spontaneous landscapes in urban ecology, to the management of these landscapes and exposure of minimum guidelines so that this method has a decent start in Romania.
Key words: spontaneous flora, ruderal, landscaping, ecology, conservation
| GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND
ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES
AABID RASOOL ZARGAR*, MEHRAJ A. SHEIKH*, MUNESH KUMAR**
* Biodiversity and Climate Change Division, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, India
** Department of Forestry, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal, 249161, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract: Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are left with is to go for anticipatory adaptive measures so as to tone down the intensity of future implications of global warming.
Key words: global warming, anticipatory adaptive measures, climate change, biophysical impacts