| SESLERIA ULIGINOSA OPIZ
– A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LEAF ANATOMICAL TRAITS
KUZMANOVIC NEVENA*, COMANESCU PETRONELA**, LAKUŠIC DMITAR*
* Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden Jevremovac, Takovska 43, Belgrade – Serbia
** Botanical Garden “Dimitrie Brandza”, Sos. Cotroceni, no. 32, Bucuresti – Romania
Abstract: The species Sesleria uliginosa is relatively common and widespread in Central (Hungary, Czech republic, Slovakia, Austria, Romania) and Northern Europe (Scandinavian peninsula), while in the Southeastern (Montenegro, Croatia, Bulgaria) and Southern Europe (Italy) it is a true natural rarity. Ecologically it is the typical species of calcareous swamps and by this feature it is an extreme quite singular within the whole genus. S. uliginosa can also grow on soils moist in spring but drying out later in summer, often at sunny stands, especially on clay soils.
According to Deyl, S. uliginosa belongs to Calcaria section, turma Uliginosa. The wax cover of the young leaves is typical for this species, but this pruining is nearly completely absent in the old leaves. It is closely related to Sesleria heuflerana Schur with which it shares some common characters – pruinos leaves, three floretted spikes and the occurrence in lower altitudes. But in the Balkan peninusla it seems to have a far wider amplitude of its stands, so it can be found on the localities that reach up to the subalpine zone.
The aim of this study was to establish and describe the anatomical differentiation of populations of S. uliginosa from Romania, Hungary and Montenegro. The measurements were carried out on permanent handmade slides, prepared by the standard method for the light microscopy. To determine the significance of anatomical variation and differentiation, the following analysis were carried out: Principal component analysis (PCA), Canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) and cluster analysis by UPGMA method.
Key words: Sesleria uliginosa, Poaceae, anatomy of leaves
| LEAF ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN RELATION
TO STRESS TOLERANCE AMONG SOME WOODY SPECIES ON THE ACCRA PLAINS OF
DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH*
* CSIR – Crops Research Institute, P.O. Box 3785, Kumasi – Ghana, West Africa
Abstract: Leaf anatomical study was conducted on some woody species on the Accra Plains of Ghana. Leaf epidermal strips and transverse sections were mounted in Canada balsam and studied. The anatomical studies revealed numerous stomata on the lower epidermis of Azadirachta indica. The anatomical studies revealed the presence of thick cuticles, double-layered palisade mesophyll in most species and the presence of epidermal hairs in some species. Ficus capensis showed the presence of cystolith in the lower epidermis whereas Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides showed the presence of mucilage gland in the upper epidermis. Epidermal cell of Chromolaena odorata are very large with undulating cell walls. The species studied had various adaptive anatomical features. The stomatal frequency of Azadirachta indica was very high. With the exception of Chromolaena odorata the stomatal frequencies of the species were relatively high. The stomatal dimensions showed that most of the species maintained constant stomatal length during the study period except Griffonia simplicifolia that increased the stomatal width during the afternoon. Unlike Morinda lucida, Griffonia simplicifolia and Chromolaena odorata, that showed reduction in the breadth of stomata, the other species maintained constant stomatal width.
Key words: leaf anatomy, stomatal dimension, woody species, Accra Plains, drought stress
| INFLUENCE OF HIGH LIGHT INTENSITY
ON THE CELLS OF CYANOBACTERIA ANABAENA VARIABILIS SP. ATCC
OPRIS SANDA*, SICORA COSMIN*, RUSU TEODOR**
* Biological Research Center Botanical Garden “Vasile Fati” Jibou, 14 Parcului Street, Jibou – Romania
**University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicines, 3-5 Manastur Street, Cluj-Napoca – Romania
Abstract: In this article is presented the result of research regardind the effect of high light intensity on the cells of Anabaena variabilis sp. ATCC 29413, the main objective is to study the adaptation of photosynthetic apparatus to light stress. Samples were analyzed in the present of herbicide diuron (DCMU) which blocks electron flow from photosystem II and without diuron. During treatment maximum fluorescence and photosystems efficiency are significantly reduced, reaching very low values compared with the blank, as a result of photoinhibition installation. Also by this treatment is shown the importance of the mechanisms by which cells detect the presence of light stress and react accordingly.
Key words: cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp., photosynthesis, high light, fluorescence
EFFICIENT MICROPROPAGATION AND EVALUATION OF GENETIC FIDELITY OF IN VITRO RAISED PLANTS OF COMMIPHORA WIGHTII ARN. (BHANDARI) – A MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT RED-LISTED SPECIES OF ARID REGIONS
PARMAR ASHOK KUMAR*, KANT TARUN*
* Forest Biotechnology & Molecular Biology Laboratory, Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding Division, Arid Forest Research Institute, New Pali Road, Jodhpur 342005 – India
Abstract: A refined and an efficient protocol for in vitro clonal propagation of Commiphora wightii, a red-listed desert plant of medicinal importance, has been developed from nodal segment of mature plant. Nodal segments from new branches having 6-7 nodes were excised after discarding the initial 5-6 cm terminal portion and were surface sterilized with 2.5% NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite), (v/v). MS medium [MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962] with different concentrations of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) was used alone and in combinations with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), NAA (a-naphthalene acetic acid), Kn (kinetin) and other additives for shoot induction. Best bud break response (84.5%) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 8.88 µM BAP, 0.57 µM IAA and additives (50 mg l-1 ascorbic acid, 25 mg l-1 citric acid and 25 mg l-1 adenine sulphate) within 2 weeks of inoculation. The micro-shoots were subcultured and maintained for further elongation on the same medium for 4 weeks. Best shoot multiplication was obtained on same medium as used for shoot initiation. Best rooting was obtained when the shoots were initially given a 24 h pulse treatment in liquid MS medium supplemented with 4.92 µM IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) and 5.71 µM IAA under dark condition, followed by transfer to semi-solid half-strength hormone-free MS medium supplemented with 2% (w/v) sucrose and 0.5% (w/v) activated charcoal. High (86.7%) percent rooting was achieved after 4-5 weeks with 3-4 multiple adventitious roots of 5-6 cm length. These in vitro raised well rooted plantlets were acclimatized in a two step manner. During in vitro hardening step, the survival was 61.5% and during ex vitro hardening step it was 100%. Hardened plants (10-12 cm in height) were transferred to polythene-bags filled with mixture of soil and FYM in the ratio of 2:1 (v/v) and were kept in 75% agro-net shade for one month, where they gained height up to 60 cm. Five month old hardened plants were planted in open field condition for evaluation of these tissue cultured raised plants. There is cent percent survival of these field grown plants over period of two years with no visible morphological abnormalities. Genetic fidelity test was carried out for these in vitro raised plants by using RAPD primers (OPA and OPN). Uniform banding pattern was observed in all plants without any polymorphism.
Key words: tissue culture, axillary shoot, rooting, hardening, oleo-gum-resin
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE FIELD PERFORMANCE OF FHIA-01 (HYBRID DESSERT BANANA) PROPAGATED FROM TISSUE CULTURE AND CONVENTIONAL SUCKER IN GHANA
DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH*, QUAIN MARIAN DORCAS*, BAM RALPH KWAME*, DARKEY SOLOMON KODJO*
* Crops Research Institute, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box 3785, Kumasi – Ghana, West Africa
Abstract: Micro-propagated plants of FHIA-01 (exotic hybrid dessert banana) were grown and their shoot-tip cultures were produced following standard method. Suckers were taken from the same plants as with the shoot-tip culture samples. The design was the randomly complete block. The plant density was 1667 plants/ha. Plants were fertilized at the rate of 40t/ha poultry manure per year split over 3 equal applications. Statistical analysis of data was performed with ANOVA. The field performance of in vitro propagated (tissue culture) tetraploid banana (FHIA-01) plants was compared with that of sucker-derived plants. In vitro-propagated plants established and grew faster, taller (240 cm) and bigger than the conventional sucker-derived plants. The former produced heavier bunches (39.1 t/ha) and could be harvested earlier. They however produced smaller number of fingers than the conventional sucker-derived plants. Significant differences were observed between the plant height and plant girth (48.6 cm) (at one metre above ground) at harvest. No significant difference was observed in bunch weight, number of hands, number of fingers and the number of leaves at harvest. The nutrient used in the Tissue culture medium may have played a significant role in the growth vigour of FHIA-01. It may also be having an influence on the performance of the hybrid. This influence may improve the yield of the crop thus improving the economy of farmers.
Key words: Banana (Musa spp.), micro-propagated, sucker-derived, in vitro
IMPACT OF METHYL JASMONATE ON PLB FORMATION OF HYBRID CYMBIDIUM (Orchidaceae)
JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA*
* Faculty of Agriculture and Graduate School of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan
Abstract: When methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was added at 1 mg/l, it could stimulate the development of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) or PLB thin cell layers of hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’, when added to Teixeira Cymbidium (TC) medium without plant growth regulators. This is a simple means to mass produce PLBs for commercial purposes.
Key words: MeJA, PGR, protocorm-like body or PLB, Teixeira Cymbidium (TC) medium, thin cell layer or TCL
| MORPHO-CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION AND
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT OCIMUM SPECIES
KAKARAPARTHI PANDU SASTRY*, RAMACHANDRAN RAMESH KUMAR*, ARIGARI NIRANJAN KUMAR*, GOGTE SNEHA**, MARGARET ELIZABETH**
* Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Research Centre, Boduppal, Uppal (P.O), Hyderabad-500092, Andhra Pradesh – India
** St. Anns P. G. College, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh – India
Abstract: Basil is a popular medicinal and culinary herb, and its essential oils have been used extensively for many years in food products, perfumery, dental and oral products. Basil essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mould. The essential oils obtained from aerial parts of three different species of Ocimum comprising twenty one germplasm lines were investigated for their essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity during 2010. Essential oils from seventeen germplasm lines in Ocimum basilicum and two each in Ocimum tenuiflorum and Ocimum gratissimum were investigated for anti-microbial activity against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sps., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The morpho-chemotypes exhibited wide variability for morphological and chemical traits. Anti-bacterial activity was found to be high for Staphylococcus aureus, moderate for Escherichia coli, low for Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant. The essential oils of Pale Green-Broad Leaves (O. basilicum) and CIM Ayu (O. gratissimum) exhibited significant antibacterial activity against both S. aureus and E. coli signifying them promising for anti-bacterial activity. No relationship was observed between chemotype specificity and anti-bacterial activity, indicating that apart from major components of essential oil, minor components and other factors may be responsible for anti-microbial activities.
Key words: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Methyl chavicol, Eugenol, Linalool, Antimicrobial activity
| ASSESSMENTS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY
IN COUNTRY BEAN (Lablab purpureus L.) USING RAPD MARKER AGAINST
BISWAS MD. SANAULLAH*, ZAKARIA MOHAMMAD*, RAHMAN MD. MIZANUR*
* Department of Horticulture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur-1706, Bangladesh
Abstract: RAPD marker was used to evaluate genetic relationships among 11 genotypes of country bean, including first three genotypes were photo-insensitive and the rests were sensitive. The genotypes were grouped into two major clusters where photo-insensitive genotypes remain in cluster I and sensitive genotypes remain in cluster II. A total of 26 bands were detected, of which 57.69% were polymorphic and the remaining were monomorphic across all genotypes. A highest level of genetic distance was observed between CB04 and CB06 while the lowest level of genetic distance showed between CB01 and CB03. The highest similarity index between the genotypes CB01 and CB03 indicated less divergence between them. Low similarity indices were observed between CB04 and CB06, which indicated more divergence. Crossing between the genotypes with low similarity coefficient will manifest high heterosis. The identified genetically distinct cultivars could be potentially important source of germplasm for further improvement of country bean.
Key words: country bean, RAPD marker, polymorphism, genetic diversity
| MICROMORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL
ASPECTS OF SOME LICHENIZED FUNGI SPECIES
PÎNDARU DIANA-MIHAELA*, TANASE CATALIN*, ARSENE CECILIA**, OLARIU ROMEO-IULIAN**
* “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of Biology, Bd. Carol I, no. 11, 700506, Iasi – Romania
** “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemistry, Bd. Carol I, no. 11, 700506, Iasi – Romania
Abstract: At present, lichenized fungi are used in biomonitoring studies of air quality, being good receptors in the climate change. This paper aims to investigate surface micromorphology of Xanthoria parietina and Phaeophyscia orbicularis species (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota). The study also includes the investigation of selected chemical parameters as pH and conductivity of the lichenized fungi samples collected from various locations in the Iasi County (Romania). Measurements of the pH provide information on the degree of pollution in the location of interest. Bark trees pH was also investigated in order to see if our matrix substrate influences the pH of the interest lichenized fungi samples.
Key words: lichenized fungi, Ascomycota, micromorphology, pH, conductivity
| CULTURE DESCRIPTION OF SOME SPONTANEOUS
LIGNICOLOUS MACROMYCETES SPECIES
BALAES TIBERIUS*, TANASE CATALIN*
* Department of Biology, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, No. 20 A, 700505 Iasi – Romania
Abstract: 24 species of lignicolous macromycetes from 4 taxonomic families and 2 orders, Class Agaricomycetes, Phyllum Basidiomycota, have been analyzed. The cultural characters of these isolates had been observed, some of them being little studied till now. The dikaryotic mycelium from the trama of the sporoms was used for the isolation purpose. The fungal isolates were cultivated onto malt extract-agar media (malt extract 20g l-1) and incubated at 25 °C, in the dark, for 6 weeks. The cultures were observed directly and using a Nikon stereomicroscope in order to measure the growth rhythm and to observe the changes of the colonies: edge, surface, reverse, shape, colour, smell, presence or absence of the exudates. After 6 weeks from the inoculation, microscopic slides were made in order to investigate the types of hyphae, the colour and the structure of the mycelium and to note the presence of particular elements: cuticle, chlamydospors, arthrospores, conidia, and basidia. We noticed that the analyzed species present similar characters but also significant differences between them.
Key words: lignicolous macromycetes, fungal growth, cultural characters
NEW ASPECTS OF THE ALPINE VEGETATION OF PARÂNG MOUNTAINS (SOUTH CARPATHIANS)
SIMON TIBOR*, PÓCS TAMÁS**
* Department of Plant Taxonomy and Ecology, Institute of Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest – Hungary
** Department of Botany, Institute of Biology, Eszterházy Károly College, Eger – Hungary
Abstract: 4 plant communities unknown in the the European syntaxonomy are described from the alpine and subalpine belts of Parâng Mountains, based on vegetation studies of the authors during 1955–1960. These are: Arabis alpina-Saxifraga aizoides, Arabis alpina-Delphinium elatum, Dianthus tenuifolius-Festuca dalmatica and the Primula minima-Dryas octopetala communities. These communities could be described later as new associations in the possession of more relevés from different localities. The East and South Carpathian Doronico carpatici-Festucetum pictae association is distinguished under this new name from the Festucetum pictae Krajina described from the Tatra Mountains. 7 further associations are found as new to the Parâng Mountains.
Key words: phytocoenology, alpine vegetation, Parâng Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania
| INVASIVE PLANTS IN THE FLORA OF
SAMARGHITAN MIHAELA*, OROIAN SILVIA**
* Mures County Museum, Natural Sciences Department, str. Horea 24, Târgu-Mures – Romania
** UMPh - Tg-Mures, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Str. Gh. Marinescu 38, Târgu-Mures – Romania
Abstract: Invasive plants are those species that are capable of rapidly spreading at great distances from parent plants. Because of them, agriculture pays a huge annual tribute. These invasive plants might shortly become the most widely spread and destructive, as they seem to take best advantage from climate changes. They have a high phytocoenological competition capacity and rapidly adapt to new life conditions to the detriment of native plants.
This paper aims to inform of the phenomenon of invasion of these alien plants, of their distribution and abundance in certain areas in Mures County. If the monitoring of invasive plants receives particular international attention, in the Mures County there is no concern for monitoring their invasion, for limiting their negative effects on the environment and human economy.
The most rapacious and common invasive plants in the studied territory are presented in the paper.
Because these species already occupy extremely large surfaces, the measures for fighting them are difficult and costly, and long-term measures for their control and elimination are required.
Key words: invasive plants, flora, Mures County
| NEW DATA ADDITION TO THE ROMANIAN
OPREA ADRIAN*, SÎRBU CULITA**, ELIÁŠ PAVOL jun.***, FERUS PETER****
* “Anastasie Fatu” Botanical Garden, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 7-9 Dumbrava Rosie St., 700487, Iasi – Romania
** University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi, Faculty of Agriculture, 3, Mihail Sadoveanu Alley, Iasi – Romania
*** Slovak Agricultural University, Faculty of Agrifood Resources, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76, Nitra – Slovakia
**** Mlynany Arboretum, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vieska nad Zitavou 178, 95152, Slepcany – Slovakia
Abstract: A number of seven plant taxa are presented in this paper, some of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (e. g. Cenchrus longispinus, Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale; Panicum miliaceum subsp. agricolum; Robinia neomexicana), while other taxa are mentioned for the first time in the flora of some historical provinces (e. g. Oenothera parviflora L. in Oltenia, or. Setaria faberi R. A. W. Herrm. in Moldavia); other taxa are newly identified in the flora of various counties (e. g. Reynoutria × bohemica in Bihor, Salaj, Cluj, Caras-Severin, Vâlcea, Prahova, and Bacau counties; Reynoutria sachalinensis in Caras-Severin County).
Key words: alien plant species, flora, new records, Romania
| THE COPACEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN
BALA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MURES COUNTY
OROIAN SILVIA*, COTOARA IONELA*
* UMPh - Tg-Mures, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Târgu-Mures, Gh. Marinescu Street 38, RO-540139, Târgu-Mures – Romania
Abstract: The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Copacel hill, between Bala and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Pawl. var. psilocarpum (Simk.) Pawl species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Copacel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941) Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9); the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale).
Key words: Delphinium simonkaianum Pawl. var. psilocarpum (Simk.) Pawl, rare plant, oak and hornbeam forest, Mures County
| ROCKERY AREA FROM BIOLOGICAL SECTION
OF “ANASTASIE FATU” BOTANICAL GARDEN
* Botanic Garden “Anastasie Fatu” Iasi, Dumbrava Rosie str. no. 7-9, Iasi – Romania
Abstract: Rockery theme area from Biological Section groups a large variety of plants which are originating from different parts of the world and with different environmental requirements. There are presented both species with significant result during last years and those species which were not accustomed to physical and geographical conditions.
Key words: casmophyte, rockery, Biological Section
| IN MEMORIAM: 100 YEARS SINCE THE
BIRTH OF THE BOTANIST CONSTANTIN DOBRESCU (1912-1989)
OPREA Adrian*, TANASE Catalin**, COJOCARIU Ana*
* Botanic Garden “Anastasie Fatu” Iasi, Dumbrava Rosie str. no. 7-9, Iasi – Romania
** Department of Biology, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, No. 20 A, 700505 Iasi – Romania
| BOOK REVIEW