| PASSIFLORA CAERULEA L.
TREATED WITH TRICHODERMA PLANT BIOSTIMULANTS CONSORTIUM.
Anca SÂRBU1, Monica Anca PARASCHIV2, Florin OANCEA2, 5, Tatiana Eugenia SESAN1, 3, 4
1 University of Bucharest, Department of Botany and Microbiology, Bucharest – Romania
2 University of Bucharest, Botanical Garden Dimitrie Brândza, Bucharest – Romania
3 National Research & Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry (INCDCP) c (ICECHIM) – Romania
4 Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Forestry, Bucharest – Romania
5 University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology Faculty – Doctoral School, Bucharest – Romania
Abstract: Plant biostimulants are an emerging category of inputs into technologies for plant cultivation, which activate plant metabolism and nutrient use efficiency. A microbial plant biostimulants consortium was applied on Passiflora caerulea L., a medicinal and nutraceutical plant grown in greenhouse conditions. The treatments were applied during P. caerulea vegetation, as a foliar treatment with a Trichoderma consortium suspension of 108 cfu/ml, equiv. to 1013 spores/ha. The treatment determined significant quantitative changes on morpho-anatomical features, on the leaf lamina (lamina with 10-20% thicker, palisadic cells with 10-20% longer, larger stomata and stomatal index increased by 15%), on the leaf petiole (the diameter ~30% larger, conducting bundles, 20% more developed, the adaxial conducting bundles, ~30% increase) and on the stem (the diameter with 15-20% larger, central cylinder with 15-20% bigger, xylem vessels of more than 50 µm diameter, with 20% more present). These morpho-anatomical features demonstrate the plant biostimulants effects of Trichoderma consortium. The results presented here sustain with morpho-anatomical data the accumulation the bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols and flavonoids with an increased antioxidant activity, which we already reported. Larger stems and leaves of P. caerulea, allow accumulation at a higher level of bioactives compounds.
Key words: Passiflora caerulea, nutraceutical crop, plant biostimulants Trichoderma consortium, structural effects, stems and leaves.
| STUDIES ON EPIDERMAL APPENDAGES
FROM VEGETATIVE ORGANS AT EUPHORBIA SPECIES CULTIVATED IN
BOTANICAL GARDEN IASSY
1 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iassy, “Anastasie Fatu” Botanic Garden, 7-9 Dumbrava Rosie street, Iassy – Romania
Abstract: The Euphorbia genus is unitary by the presence of the characteristic inflorescence named cyathium, but presents a remarkable morphological diversity of aerial vegetative organs. Species that originated in the tropical zones, especially South-African ones stand out by the presence of some epidermal appendages little known (trichomes, spines, leaf scars). Of those, the spines are the most conspicuous and intriguing from a structural point of view; the botanical terminology used for describing their features is critically presented. The representatives of the Euphorbia genus cultivated in Botanical Garden Iassy greenhouses were morphologically analysed and a detailed description of epidermal appendages resulted, which is useful in clearing taxonomical aspects.
Key words: epidermal appendages, Euphorbia, leaf scar, spine shields, vegetative organs.
| THE NATURE OF THE INFERIOR OVARY
IN SOME MONOCOTYLEDONOUS FAMILIES
Sherif Mohamed SHARAWY1, Sayed Farag KHALIFA1
1 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassya 11566, Cairo – Egypt
Abstract: The floral vasculature aspects of twenty-four species belonging to six monocotyledonous families are dealt with. These selected taxa include 23 horticulture species cultivated in Egypt and the remainders is among the wild flora of Egypt. A great attention has been focused by phylogenetists on the position of the ovary with respect to the other parts of the flower. In this connection, the nature of the inferior ovary is generally discussed on the basis of two theories; appendicular and axial. It is fortunate that the vascular skeleton can still be regarded as the most conservative character and that it may be rather conclusive in the determination of the nature of the inferior ovary. In the present study, the different patterns of floral vascularization are presented in cumulative tables and figures to facilitate the comparative study. Moreover, an interpretation to the observed variations is also tried to reach at the relations between the taxa studied and to determine the nature of the hypanthium.
Key words: Epigynous flower, floral vasculature, hypanthium, inferior ovary, monocotyledons.
| GENETIC AND AGRONOMIC EVALUATION
OF RAINFED TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.) ACCESSIONS IN
Dickson Junior NWOSU1, Christopher NWADIKE2, Gloria AFOLAYAN3, Sunday ALADELE3, Anthony Ugochukwu OKERE4, Peter OMONOMO5
1 National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB), North Centre Zone, Badeggi – Nigeria
2 Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos – Nigeria
3 National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB), Department of Plant Genetic Resources, Ibadan – Nigeria
4 National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB), Biotechnology Unit, Ibadan – Nigeria
5 National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB), North Centre Zone, Badeggi – Nigeria
Abstract: The extent of genetic variability among 19 accessions of tomato was studied using genetic variability parameters. Four-week old seedlings were transplanted in a well levelled field with 0.6 x 0.6 spacing and replicated three times in randomized complete block design. High significant differences among the accessions for all attributes studied. Cluster analysis based on 37 agro-morphological attributes separated accessions into two distinct groups according to the fruit types. Values for genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation showed variability among the accessions. Correlation analysis showed fruit/plant is positively and significantly correlated to plant height, number of branches/plant and leaf length. Very high genetic advance and heritability estimates for leaf length, leaf width, days to flower, days to 50% flowering, number of fruits/plant, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight and 1000 seed weight suggest simple inheritance system and thus amenability for these attributes to selection in tomato improvement.
Key words: attributes, genetic advance, heritability, inheritance, tomato, variance.
QUANTITATIVE INHERITANCE OF SPIKE CHARACTERS IN CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L.)
Bolaji Zuluqurineen SALIHU1, Isiaka Amuda YUSUF1, Benson Obukohwo APUYOR1, Abolore Adijat AJADI2, Maryam Alfa KABARAINI1, Muhammad Nur ISHAQ1
1 National Cereals Research Institute, Castor Research Programme, P.M.B. 8, Badeggi, Bida – Nigeria
2 National Cereals Research Institute, Biotechnology and Central Lab., P.M.B. 8, Badeggi, Bida – Nigeria
Abstract: Castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) is an important oil crop with little research attention in Nigeria. In this research, studies on quantitative inheritance of spike characters in castor, through combining ability and generation mean analyses, were carried out. This was aimed at evaluating prominent seed yield related components for selection and hybridization in castor breeding in Nigeria. The result of combining ability analysis showed significant differences for both general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for number of spikes per plant (SPP), effective spike length (ESL), capsules per spike (CPS) and 100-seeds weight. Specific combining ability was important for seed yield (SY) and seed oil content. Broad sense heritability and narrow sense heritability of 28.02% to 99.64% and 10.28% to 72.19% respectively were recorded among the traits studied. The results of scaling and joint scaling tests revealed inadequacy of simple additive-dominance model to explain the mode of gene actions for all the studied traits. The six parameters model revealed that besides the additive and dominance gene actions, epistatic interaction mechanisms have also contributed significantly to the expressions of all the characters examined. These findings suggest heterosis breeding and recurrent selections as appropriate breeding techniques for the improvement of the traits. However, where additive gene actions are to be exploited in selection program for some of the traits, the problem pose by presence of epistasis gene interactions may be overcome through delay in selection to later generation when the major operating genes will be fixable.
Key words: castor, combining ability, generation mean, inheritance, Nigeria, quantitative, spike characters.
STUDIES ON THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN YIELD AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN SOME SELECTED SOYBEAN LINES AT YANDEV IN SOUTHERN GUINEA SAVANNAH OF NIGERIA
Gabriel Ojonimi ABIMAJE1, Terkimbi VANGE2, David Kparafa ADEDZWA2, Aondover SHAAHU3
1 Department of Agriculture, Yagba East Local Government Council, Kogi State – Nigeria
2 Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State – Nigeria
3 National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, Niger State – Nigeria
Abstract: A field trial was conducted during the 2010 cropping season at the experimental farm of Akperan Orshi College of Agriculture, Yandev–Gboko, Benue State. The plots were laid in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The analysis of variance showed significant in difference in nodule dry weight; days to 50% flowering; days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of branches; number of pods per plant; number of seeds/ plant; and weight of 100 seeds among the genotypes studied. The result of this experiment conducted showed that there were highly significant correlation on number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, and significant correlation of one hundred seed with seed yield. The results of the path coefficient analysis also showed that number of pods per plant exerted the highest direct effect on seed yield. Weight (g) of one hundred seeds showed the least direct effect among the traits evaluated. The regression on seed yield and its component character also showed that number of pods per plant had the highest contribution to seed yield with the proportion due to regression being 48%. The relative contribution of number of branches per plant to seed yield was 2%.
Key words: Correlation, genotypes, path analysis, regression, soybean.
EFFECTS OF COPPER ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.
Muhammad Zafar IQBAL1, Umm-e-HABIBA1, Sundus NAYAB1, Muhammad SHAFIQ1
1 University of Karachi, Department of Botany, Karachi – Pakistan
Abstract: The discharge of heavy metals in the environment due to anthropogenic, industrial and automobile activities is a worldwide environmental pollution problem. Copper is widely used in different forms in fertilizer, fungicides. Industrial effluents and for the removal algal growth in ponds. In this study the toxic effects of copper (Cu) on seed germination and seedling growth of Lens culinaris were investigated. Germination rate of L. culinaris that showed that increased in concentration of copper treatment at 25 ppm significantly (p<0.05) reduced germination percentage as compared to control. Seedling growth variables i.e. root and shoot length, seedling size and root/shoot ratio also declined significantly (p<0.05) with the treatment of copper at 25 ppm as compared to control. Seedlings dry weight of L. culinaris gradually reduced with increased in all treatment of copper concentration as compared to control.
Tolerance indices and seedling vigor index of L. culinaris also decreased with increase in concentration of copper treatment. Low percentage of reduction in tolerance indices and seedling vigor index of L. culinaris was recorded at 25 ppm copper treatment as compared to control. A high percentage of reduction in seedling tolerance indices of L. culinaris was recorded at 100 ppm of copper treatment as compared to control.
Key words: heavy metals, phytoxicity, seed germination, seedling growth, tolerance index.
| ADVENTITIOUS ROOTS DEVELOPMENT
AND ROOT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM CUTTINGS
Ana COJOCARIU1, Elena-Liliana CHELARIU2, Catalin TANASE3
1 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi – “Anastasie Fatu” Botanical Garden, Dumbrava Rosie Street no. 7-9, 700487 Iasi – Romania
2 Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi, Mihail Sadoveanu Alley no. 3, 700490 Iasi – Romania
3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Biology, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, 20A Carol I, 700505 Iasi – Romania
Abstract: Chrysanthemum have significant ornamental value and thus have a great economic importance and are also subjected to losses due to the insufficient rooting of the cuttings - the main method of vegetative propagation practiced for this crop. Insufficient understanding of the mechanisms that control adventitious root formation prevents the use of reliable technologies to improve the percentage of root adventitious development in cuttings of ornamental plants in general. Also, knowing the architecture of the root system helps correct application of chrysanthemum culture technologies. Two different cultivars of Chrysanthemum was investigated in order to describe the radicular architecture of cuttings, with emphasis on the root type and the influence of substrate on the developed model into four different variants of rooting substrate.
Key words: adventitious roots, Chrysanthemum, cuttings, nutrients, root system, rooting substrate.
| PROTOPLAST AS A TOOL TO ADDRESS
QUESTIONS IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
Tim XING1, Lining TIAN2
1 Department of Biology and Institute of Biochemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa – Canada K1S 5B6
2Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London Research and Development Centre, London, ON – Canada N5V 4T3
Abstract: A protoplast is a plant cell from which the cell wall has been removed by enzyme treatment. Tremendous utilization of protoplast in molecular analysis of plant growth and development has been observed in the past decades and the system has paved its way to significantly facilitate the comprehensive understanding of the complexity of underlying mechanisms. However, it should be kept in mind that a plant, like all systems, is composed of networks of interdependent components that integrate the system into a unified whole. In this mini review, we will re-explore protoplast approach in answering plant physiology questions through discussion of its application in the study of (1) photosynthesis and chloroplast-related process; (2) pollen tube growth; (3) sieve tube element protoplast for long distance translocation; (4) new regulatory metabolites from guard cell protoplast. This in vitro approach may open the way to further meaningful results at organismal level.
Key words: guard cell, pollen tube, protoplast, photosynthesis, sieve tube element, stomata.
| CHANGES IN MORPHOLOGY AND GROWTH
RATE OF FUSARIUM SOLANI COLONIES EXPOSED TO VOLATILE COMPOUNDS SYNTHESIZED
BY WOOD-ROTTING BASIDIOMYCETES
Cristiana Virginia PETRE1, Catalin TANASE2
1 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, “Anastasie Fatu” Botanical Garden, 7-9 Dumbrava Rosie, 700487, Iasi – Romania
2 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of Biology, 20A Carol I, 700505, Iasi – Romania
Abstract: This study aims to determine the effects of the volatile metabolites synthesized by 53 species of wood-rotting basidiomycetes on the morphology and growth rate of Fusarium solani colonies. The fungi were cultivated in bi-compartmented Petri dishes. For every combination 4 different plates were prepared as well as a control Petri dish containing only Fusarium solani. The species were cultivated on PFMEA (potato flakes malt extract agar) and kept for 5 days at 25°C and further, the test plates were compared with the control, regarding the general aspect of Fusarium solani colony, pigmentation and differences in growth rate. The observations revealed that the volatiles synthesized by 42 species of wood-rotting basidiomycetes evidently influenced the development of the phytopathogenic species. The volatiles of Neofavolus alveolaris inhibited the most the growth of Fusarium solani. The GC-MS analysis of the volatile profile of Neofavolus alveolaris revealed the presence of compounds such as: 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol and benzaldehyde.
Key words: Fusarium solani, growth inhibition, morphological changes, volatile metabolites, wood-rotting basidiomycetes.
| CLIMATIC PREDICTORS INFLUENCES
VFWD FUNGAL DIVERSITY THROUGH DOMINANT TREE' ECOLOGY IN BEECH FORESTS
IN THE NORTH-EASTERN ROMANIA
Ovidiu COPOT1, Tiberius BALAES1, Ciprian BÎRSAN1, Cristiana Virginia PETRE1, Ana COJOCARIU1, Catalin TANASE2
1 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi - “Anastasie Fatu” Botanical Garden, Dumbrava Rosie Street no. 7-9, 700487 Iasi – Romania
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Biology, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, 20A Carol I, 700505, Iasi – Romania
Abstract: Lignicolous fungi plays are a vital part of forest ecosystems in Europe. They are involved in Carbon cycle, through decay processes of woody debris. Very fine woody debris (VFWD) forms an important component of this dead wood, being found in any forest in the World. Among European and Romanian forests, Fagus spp. dominating forests are the most important broadleaved ecosystems, of great biotic and abiotic complexity. The present distribution of lignicolous fungi is mainly linked to trees distribution. In the context of climate change, European beech forests will also shift in distribution, structure and composition, triggering changes in lignicolous fungal communities and diversity as well. Considering this background, VFWD lignicolous diversity might be a future beech forests climate change indicator. This will bring the necessity of assessing the main climatic factors that are influencing the lignicolous fungal diversity distribution across European beech forests in Romanian's North-East Region. In the present study, our findings confirms the fact that macroclimate have a great influence on lignicolous mycodiversity in beech forests. It seems that minimum temperature and Gams Continentality Index explains approximately 48% of the mycodiversity variation. While dropping minimum temperatures and increasing Gams CI values, the lignicolous fungal richness will rise. While minimum temperature of January might be linked to a complex ecological and phonological framework, Gams CI is a known ecological indicator for optimum habitat of beech forests, which in turn influence lignicolous diversity distribution. Those climatic variables might characterize the relation between plants-fungi-climate in the near future, as increasing atmospheric temperatures will manifest at different scales. Thereafter, VFWD mycodiversity might function as a valuable macroclimatic changing indicator.
Key words: European beech, beech forests, climatic predictors, VFWD, lignicolous fungi, mycodiversity, BIO6, Gams Continentality Index.
NEW RECORDS IN THE ALIEN FLORA OF ROMANIA: EUPHORBIA SERPENS AND E. GLYPTOSPERMA
Culita SÎRBU1, Irina SUSNIA (TONE)1
1 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “Ion Ionescu de la Brad”, Iasi – Romania
Abstract: Our recent field research and revision of some herbarium specimens led us to identify two species of Euphorbia (subgenus Chamaesyce), which we report now for the first time in the alien flora of Romania: Euphorbia serpens Kunth and E. glyptosperma Engelm. The first was collected in the city of Iasi, north-eastern Romania, in September 2018. The second was collected, during 2005-2015, in several localities from the lower basin of the Siret river (Galati County), as well as from north-eastern Romania, near Ciurea (Iasi County), but previously erroneously identified as “Euphorbia chamaesyce L.”. Both species, originating in the New World, are xenophytes, more or less naturalized in Europe, perhaps in full process of expansion of their secondary area.
Key words: alien plants, identification key, subgenus Chamaesyce, vascular flora.
| SALICETUM ALBAE ISSLER
1924 LEUCOJETOSUM AESTIVI PÎNZARU SUBASS. NOV. IN THE
REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
1National Botanical Garden (Institute) “Alexandru Ciubotaru”, Chisinau – Republic of Moldova
2 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza“ University from Iasi, Faculty of Biology, Department of Biology, 20A Carol I, 700505, Iasi – Romania
3 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza“ University from Iasi, Faculty of Biology, Department of Biology, 20A Carol I, 700505, Iasi – Romania
Abstract: This article is focused on the description of the forests of Salix alba L. with Leucojum aestivum L., in the valley of Prut River, in the Republic of Moldova. Based on 19 relevés, the author has grouped these forests in a plant community newly described for science – Salicetum albae leucojetosum aestivi subass. nov. included in the alliance Salicion albae Soó 1951, the order Salicetalia purpureae Moor 1958, cl. SALICETEA PURPUREAE Moor 1958.
Key words: Salicetum albae Issler 1924 leucojetosum aestivi subass. nov. characteristic of phytocoenosis, ecology, range, Republic of Moldova.
| IN MEMORIAM|
Professor univ. dr. eng. Mandache LEOCOV
Catalin TANASE1, Adrian OPREA2
1 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iasi, Faculty of Biology, Department of Biology, 20A Carol I, 700505, Iasi – Romania
2 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iasi, “Anastasie Fatu” Botanical Garden, Dumbrava Rosie Street no. 7-9, 700487 Iasi – Romania